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ТЕСТИ З АНГЛІЙСЬКОЇ МОВИ

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Додано: 25.01.2012 Додав: Юля Крижевич  текстів: 121
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МІНІСТЕРСТВО СВІТИ І НАУКИ УКРАЇНИ
ЛЬВІВСЬКИЙ НАЦІОНАЛЬНИЙ УНІВЕРСИТЕТ ІМЕНІ ІВАНА
ФРАНКА
КАФЕДРА ІНОЗЕМНИХ МОВ ДЛЯ ГУМАНІТАРНИХ ФАКУЛЬТЕТІВ


I. Choose one paragraph from the following reading that best suits each statement.

1. Some people say the first words were grunts of love between people. Some say they were imitations of animal sounds. But there is no real way of knowing. Nor is there any way of telling when people first began to speak.
2. However, Neanderthal man, who appeared around 70,000 years ago, could probably make a few recognizable sounds.
3. Scientists generally agree that people first learned to speak 50-30,000 years ago. But it may be that people could communicate by signs and in other ways a long time before this. They did not learn to write until 5000 years ago
4. A close study of the skulls of early hominids suggests that Australopithecus, who appeared around 4 million years ago, could not speak. Like apes, this hominid did not have a throat able to make the sounds of speech.
5. Wherever there is human society, there is language. Most forms of human activity depend on the cooperation of two or more persons.
6. A common language enables humans to work together in an infinite variety of ways. Language has made possible the development of advanced, technological civilization.
7. Without language for communication, there would be little or no science, religion, commerce, government, art, literature, and philosophy.
8. Language is a human speech, either spoken or written. Language is the most common system of communication. It allows people to talk to each other and to write their thoughts and ideas.
9. Scholars determined that there are about 3,000 languages spoken in the world today. This number does not include dialects (local forms of a language).
10. Many languages are spoken only by small groups of a few hundred or a few thousand persons. There are more than a hundred languages with a million or more speakers.

1. People did not learn to write until 5000 years ago. 3
2. Some people say the first words were imitations of animal sounds.1
3. Language allows people to talk to each other and to write their thoughts and ideas 8
4. Neanderthal man appeared around 70,000 years ago. 2
5. Australopithecus did not have a throat able to make the sounds of speech. 4

I. Which part of the text does each statement correspond to?
1. Most people learn their own language without fully realizing what is taking place. Young children feel a need to communicate their particular needs and they begin listening to older persons and imitating them. They gradually learn to select and to make the sounds used in the language spoken around them.
2. They also learn to disregard other possible sounds that their voices could make. At the same time, children learn to connect individual words with objects, ideas, and actions. Their responses become automatic.
3. Tape recorders permit students to listen, repeat, erase their own repetition, then try again.
4. For example, upon seeing a dog, an English-speaking child automatically calls it “a dog”. Youngsters also learn, largely by imitation, to arrange words in certain ways.
5. By the age of 5 or 6, most children have learned the patterns of their language fairly well. They can then communicate well enough for most of their own practical purposes. In school, the language-learning process becomes conscious and deliberate.
6. Children become aware of how the sounds and words of their language are arranged in systems. They can then learn to speak or write precisely about more complex matters.
7. Computers correct student translations of words and phrases on a video display screen.
8. For hundreds of years, language students have used grammar books, exercise books, and dictionaries.
9. Modern study aids – especially for spoken language – include voice recordings with accompanying booklets, tape recorders, videotapes and closed-circuit TV’s and computers.
10. Videotapes and closed-circuit TV’s let students watch their mouth movements and compare then with those of a speaker.

1. Children learn to connect individual words with objects, ideas, and actions. 2
2. Youngsters learn to arrange words in certain ways. 4
3. Young children begin listening to older persons and imitating them. 1
4. Children can learn to speak or write precisely about more complex matters. 6
5. Most children can communicate well enough for most of their own practical
purposes.5
III.
I. Which part of the text does each statement correspond to?
1. A knowledge of how to write well is not something that comes naturally. It is a skill that students have to work to develop.
2. It seems logical that before you try to put a jigsaw puzzle together you should have a good idea what the shape of the finished product will be. This is also true when it comes to writing an essay.
3. Before you spend time writing a revising, you should decide what it is you are trying to create. Planning an outline for your essay gives you a basic structure from which to work.
4. Planning an outline for your essay helps you sort out the main ideas and the important details you will need to explain or illustrate or develop these ideas. It also reduces the risk of leaving out some really important fact or argument.
5. Introduction makes the first impression of your writing. It should state the essay’s main idea or theses statement which is called the controlling idea.
6. The controlling idea is what tells your readers what the essay they are reading will be about. The introduction should present general facts or ideas that will orient your readers to your essay’s subject.
7. Choosing the right words in your sentences will help you to communicate your ideas to your readers accurately and effectively.
8. Often, however, choosing the right word while writing your essay depends on knowing how to detect the wrong word.
9. You may need to change a word because you have already overused it in your essay, or because it turns out not to mean exactly what you thought it meant.
10. You may have to change a word because it may be wrong for the context in which you have placed it, perhaps too formal or informal for that context. A good sense of how to use words is a skill that every writer should develop.

1. You may need to change a word because it may be wrong for the context in which you have placed it. 9
2. A knowledge of how to write well is a skill that students have to work to develop. 1
3. Planning an outline for your essay reduces the risk of leaving out some really
important fact or argument. 4
4. Choosing the right word often depends on knowing how to detect the wrong word. 8
5. Introduction should state the essay’s main idea. 5

IV.
I. Which part of the text does each statement correspond to?
1. Almost every literary work includes four elements: characters, plot, theme or statement and style. A good writer tries to balance these elements in order to create a unified work of art.
2. Characters. Writers may want to describe actions or ideas. But they must also describe the characters – the persons or objects – affected by these actions or ideas. The characters make up the central interest of many dramas and novels, as well as biographies and autobiographies.
3. Even a poem is concerned with characters. The speaker, or the poet, is often the main character of a poem. Writers must know their characters thoroughly and have a clear picture of each one’s looks, speech, and thoughts.
4. Setting is the place in which a character’s story occurs. Literary characters, like the persons who read about them, do not exist alone in space. They act and react with one another.
5. Characters also respond to the world in which they live. Setting is another way of showing people. If Tom lived in England and David in Missouri, they would become different people as they responded to and acted within their surroundings.
6. Plot tells what happens to the characters in a story. A plot is built around a series of events that take place within a definite period of time. No rules exist for the order in which the events are presented.
7. A unified plot has a beginning, a middle, and an end. That is, an author leads us from somewhere (a character with a problem), through somewhere (the character overcoming or being overcome by the problem).
8. In literary terms, we speak of a story having an exposition, a rising action, a climax, and a denouement, or outcome.
9. The exposition gives the background and situation of the story. The rising action builds upon the given material. It creates suspense, or reader’s desire to find out what happens next.
10. The climax is the highest point of interest. The denouement ends the story.

1. The speaker, or the poet, is often the main character of a poem. 3
2. Literary characters do not exist alone in space. 4
3. A plot is built around a series of events that take place within a definite period of time. 6
4. A good writer tries to balance the elements of literary work in order to create a unified work of art. 1
5. Writers describe actions or ideas and also the characters. 2


V.
I. Which part of the text does each statement correspond to?
1. Criticism is the analysis and judgment of works of art, the establishment of principles governing literary composition, and the assessment of literary works.
2. Criticism tries to interpret and to evaluate such works and to examine the principles by which they may be understood.
3. Criticism attempts to promote high standards among artists and to encourage the appreciation of art. It also helps society remain aware of the value of both past and present works of art.
4. Criticism can be divided into four basic types. They differ according to which aspect of art the critic chooses to emphasize.
5. Formal criticism examines the forms or structures of works of art. It may also compare a work with others of its genre (kind), such as other tragic plays or other sonnets.
6. Formal criticism is sometimes intrinsic - that is, it may seek to treat each work of art as complete in itself.
7. Expressive criticism regards works as expressing the ideas or feelings of the artist. It examines the artist’s background and conscious or unconscious motives.
8. Mimetic criticism views art as an imitation of the world. It analyses the ways that artists show reality, and their thoughts about it.
9. The four ways of criticism can also be combined. For example, a critic who looks at the form of a work, might also study the way this form affects an audience.
10. Rhetorical criticism analyses the means by which a work of art affects an audience. It focuses on style and on general principles of psychology.

1. Expressive criticism examines the artist’s background and conscious or unconscious motives. 7
2. Formal criticism may compare a work with others of its genre (kind). 5
3. Criticism tries to examine the principles by which literary works may be understood. 2
4. Criticism also helps society remain aware of the value of both past and present works of art. 3
5. Rhetorical criticism focuses on style and on general principles of psychology. 10

VI.
I. Which part of the text does each statement correspond to?
1.The novel is an extended, long fictional prose narrative that tells about events
in the lives of real or imaginary people, often including some sense of the psychological development of the central characters and of their relationship with a broader world.
2.It is one of the most popular forms of literature. Most novels reflect the author’s outlook on life.
3. Novels can provide exciting stories and an escape from everyday life. However, they also appeal to people for many other reasons. Many novels encourage the reader to think about moral, social, or philosophical problems.
4. Some novels point out injustices or evils that exist in society and challenge the reader to seek social or political reforms. Novels also may provide knowledge about unfamiliar subjects or give new insight into familiar ones.
5. The subject matter of novels covers the whole range of human experience and imagination. Some novels portray true-to-life characters and events. Writers of such realistic novels try to represent life as it is.
6. One kind of realistic novel, the psychological novel, focuses on the thoughts and feelings of one or more characters in a story. In contrast to realistic novels, romantic novels portray idealized versions of life.
7. Some novels explore purely imaginary worlds. For example, science fiction novels may describe events that take place in the future or on other planets.
8. Other popular kinds of novels include detective novels and mysteries. The plots of such novels, which are full of suspense, fascinate countless readers.
9. The basic features of the novel make it a uniquely flexible form of literature. Novelists can arrange incidents, describe places, and represent characters in an almost limitless variety of ways.
10. They also may narrate their stories from different points of view. In some novels, for example, one of the characters tells the story. In others, the events may be described from the viewpoint of a person outside of the story.

1. In some novels the events may be described from the viewpoint of a person outside of the story. 10
2. The novel tells about events in the lives of real or imaginary people. 1
3. Writers of realistic novels try to represent life as it is. 5
4. Many novels encourage the reader to think about moral, social, or philosophical problems. 3
5. Some novels challenge the reader to seek social or political reforms. 4
 
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